Bedah Anak


Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Pediatric surgery arose in the middle of the 20th century as the surgical care of birth defects required novel techniques and methods and became more commonly based at children’s hospitals. One of the sites of this innovation was Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Beginning in the 1940s under the surgical leadership of C. Everett Koop, newer techniques for endotracheal anesthesia of infants allowed surgical repair of previously untreatable birth defects. By the late 1970s, the infant death rate from several major congenital malformation syndromes had been reduced to near zero.Subspecialties of pediatric surgery itself include: neonatal surgery and fetal surgery.

Other areas of surgery also have pediatric specialties of their own that require further training during the residencies and in a fellowship: pediatric cardiothoracic (surgery on the child’s heart and/or lungs, including heart and/or lung transplantation), pediatric nephrological surgery (surgery on the child’s kidneys and ureters, including renal, or kidney, transplantation), pediatric neurosurgery (surgery on the child’s brain, central nervous system, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves), pediatric urological surgery (surgery on the child’s urinary bladder and other structures below the kidney necessary for ejaculation), pediatric emergency surgery, surgery involving fetuses or embryos (overlapping with obstetric/gynecological surgery, neonatology, and maternal-fetal medicine), surgery involving adolescents or young adults, pediatric hepatological (liver) and gastrointestinal (stomach and intestines) surgery (including liver and intestinal transplantation in children), pediatric orthopedic surgery (muscle and bone surgery in children), pediatric plastic and reconstructive surgery (such as for burns, or for congenital defects like cleft palate not involving the major organs), and pediatric oncological (childhood cancer) surgery.

Common pediatric diseases that may require pediatric surgery include:image

  • congenital malformations: lymphangioma, cleft lip and palate, esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, intestinal atresia, necrotizing enterocolitis, meconium plugs, Hirschsprung’s disease, imperforate anus, undescended testes
  • abdominal wall defects: omphalocele, gastroschisis, hernias
  • chest wall deformities: pectus excavatum
  • childhood tumors: like neuroblastoma, Wilms’ tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, ATRT, liver tumors, teratomas
  • Separation of conjoined twins

Fetal Surgery

  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital High Airway Obstruction
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation
  • Fetal Surgery for Neck Masses
  • Fetal Surgery for Sacrococcygeal Teratoma
  • Fetal Surgery for Urinary Tract Obstruction

General Surgeryimage

  • Adrenal Glands
  • Alimentary Tract Duplications
  • Anorectal Abscess in Children
  • Atresia, Stenosis, and Other Obstruction of the Colon
  • Chemical Burns
  • Cloacal Malformations
  • Congenital Anomalies of the Esophagus
  • Conjoined Twins
  • Diaphragmatic Hernias
  • Disorders of the Umbilicus
  • Electrical Injuries in Emergency Medicine
  • Emergent Management of Thermal Burns
  • Esophageal Atresia With or Without Tracheoesophageal Fistula
  • Evaluation of the Pediatric Surgical Patient
  • Fluid Management for the Pediatric Surgical Patient
  • Gastrointestinal Duplications
  • Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Webs
  • Lymph Node Disorders
  • Management of Severe Pediatric Constipation
  • Meckel Diverticulum Surgery
  • Mesenteric and Omental Cysts
  • Minimal Access Surgery
  • Neonatology Considerations for the Pediatric Surgeon
  • Nutrition in the Pediatric Surgical Patient
  • Pediatric Abdominal Trauma
  • Pediatric Breast Disorders
  • Pediatric Choledochal Cyst Surgery
  • Pediatric Colonic Motility Disorders
  • Pediatric Crohn Disease Surgery
  • Pediatric Duodenal Atresia and Stenosis Surgery
  • Pediatric Fistula-in-Ano
  • Pediatric Gallbladder Disease Surgery
  • Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Surgery
  • Pediatric Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
  • Pediatric Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis Surgery
  • Pediatric Imperforate Anus Surgery
  • Pediatric Intussusception Surgery
  • Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma Surgery
  • Pediatric Surgery for Anal Fissure
  • Pediatric Surgery for Ascites
  • Pediatric Surgery for Central Venous Access
  • Pediatric Teratomas and Other Germ Cell Tumors
  • Pediatric Torticollis Surgery
  • Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy
  • Rhabdomyomas
  • Small Intestinal Atresia and Stenosis
  • Small Left Colon Syndrome
  • Spina Bifida Hydrocephalus and Shunts
  • Stomas of the Small and Large Intestine
  • Surgical Treatment of Burns
  • Surgical Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

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