- Does atopic dermatitis cause food allergy? A systematic review.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Apr;137(4):1071-8. Tsakok T, Marrs T, Mohsin M, Baron S, du Toit G2, Till S, Flohr C. Abstract BACKGROUND: The association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy (FA) is not fully understood, although a causal relationship has been suggested. This has important implications for prevention and treatment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review the association between AD and FA, the effect of FA on AD severity, chronicity, and age of onset, and the temporal relationship between the two. METHODS: Medline and Embase were systematically searched from inception to November 2014 for studies investigating both AD and FA. RESULTS: Sixty-six studies were identified. Eighteen were population-based, 8 used high-risk cohorts, and the rest comprised patients with either established AD or FA. In population-based studies, the likelihood of food sensitization was up to 6 times higher in patients with AD versus healthy control subjects at 3 months of age (odds ratio, 6.18; 95% CI, 2.94-12.98; P < .001). Other population-based studies reported that up to 53% of subjects with AD were food sensitized, and up to 15% demonstrated signs of FA on challenge. Meanwhile, studies including only patients with established AD have reported food sensitization prevalences up to 66%, with challenge-proven FA prevalences reaching up to 81%. Sixteen studies suggested that FA is associated with a more severe AD phenotype. Six studies indicated that AD of earlier onset or increased persistence is particularly associated with FA. Finally, one study found that AD preceded the development of FA. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review confirms a strong and dose-dependent association between AD, food sensitization, and FA. AD of increased severity and chronicity is particularly associated with FA. There is also evidence that AD precedes the development of food sensitization and allergy, in keeping with a causal relationship.
- Dengue hemorrhagic fever and the kidney. Arch Virol. 2016 Apr;161(4):771-8. Vachvanichsanong P, Thisyakorn U, Thisyakorn C. Abstract. Dengue virus infection (DVI)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a common febrile illness with a variety of severities. The mortality rate is high in dengue shock syndrome (DSS), caused by circulatory failure due to plasma leakage resulting in multi-organ failure. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) is rarely reported. In areas of endemic DVI, the prevalence of AKI due to DVI has been reported to be as high as 6.0 % in children with AKI, and 0.9 % in children with DVI who were admitted to a hospital. The mechanism of AKI in DVI is not clear. It may result from (a) direct injury as in other infectious diseases, (b) an indirect mechanism such as via the immune system, since DHF is an immunological disease, or (c) hypotensive DSS, leading in turn to reduced renal blood supply and renal failure. The mortality rates of DF/DHF, DSS and DHF/DSS-related AKI are 60 %, respectively. Kidney involvement is not actually that rare, but is under-recognized and often only reported when microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, electrolyte imbalance, or even AKI is found. The prevalence of proteinuria and hematuria has been reported as high as 70-80 % in DVI. A correct diagnosis depends on basic investigations of kidney function such as urinalysis, serum creatinine and electrolytes. Although DVI-related renal involvement is treated supportively, it is still important to make an early diagnosis to prevent AKI and its complications, and if AKI does occur, dialysis may be required. Fortunately, in patients who recover, kidney function usually completely recovers as well.
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