- Schweich PJ, Smith KM, Dowd MD, et al. Pediatric emergency medicine practice patterns: a comparison of pediatric and general emergency physicians. Pediatr Emerg Care. Apr 1998;14(2):89-94. [Medline].
- Poirier MP, Davis PH, Gonzalez-del Rey JA, Monroe KW. Pediatric emergency department nurses’ perspectives on fever in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. Feb 2000;16(1):9-12. [Medline].
- Seow VK, Lin AC, Lin IY, Chen CC, Chen KC, Wang TL, et al. Comparing different patterns for managing febrile children in the ED between emergency and pediatric physicians: impact on patient outcome. Am J Emerg Med. Nov 2007;25(9):1004-8. [Medline].
- Myers MG, Wright PF, Smith AL, et al. Complications of occult pneumococcal bacteremia in children. J Pediatr. May 1974;84(5):656-60. [Medline].
- Bratton L, Teele DW, Klein JO. Outcome of unsuspected pneumococcemia in children not initially admitted to the hospital. J Pediatr. May 1977;90(5):703-6. [Medline].
- Stoll ML, Rubin LG. Incidence of occult bacteremia among highly febrile young children in the era of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a study from a Children’s Hospital Emergency Department and Urgent Care Center. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Jul 2004;158(7):671-5. [Medline].
- Graneto JW, Soglin DF. Maternal screening of childhood fever by palpation. Pediatr Emerg Care. Jun 1996;12(3):183-4. [Medline].
- Noyola DE, Fernandez M, Kaplan SL. Reevaluation of antipyretics in children with enteric fever. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Aug 1998;17(8):691-5. [Medline].
- Carson SM. Alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the febrile child: examination of the evidence regarding efficacy and safety. Pediatr Nurs. Sep-Oct 2003;29(5):379-82. [Medline].
- McCarthy PL, Lembo RM, Fink HD, et al. Observation, history, and physical examination in diagnosis of serious illnesses in febrile children less than or equal to 24 months. J Pediatr. Jan 1987;110(1):26-30. [Medline].
- Baker MD, Avner JR, Bell LM. Failure of infant observation scales in detecting serious illness in febrile, 4- to 8-week-old infants. Pediatrics. Jun 1990;85(6):1040-3. [Medline].
- Colletti JE, Homme JL, Woodridge DP. Unsuspected neonatal killers in emergency medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am. Nov 2004;22(4):929-60. [Medline].
- Crocetti M, Moghbeli N, Serwint J. Fever phobia revisited: have parental misconceptions about fever changed in 20 years?. Pediatrics. Jun 2001;107(6):1241-6. [Medline].
- Bonsu BK, Chb M, Harper MB. Identifying febrile young infants with bacteremia: is the peripheral white blood cell count an accurate screen?. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 2003;42(2):216-25. [Medline].
- Levine DA, Platt SL, Dayan PS, et al. Risk of serious bacterial infection in young febrile infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections. Pediatrics. Jun 2004;113(6):1728-34. [Medline].
- Teele DW, Pelton SI, Grant MJ, et al. Bacteremia in febrile children under 2 years of age: results of cultures of blood of 600 consecutive febrile children seen in a “walk- in” clinic. J Pediatr. Aug 1975;87(2):227-30. [Medline].
- Carstairs KL, Tanen DA, Johnson AS, Kailes SB, Riffenburgh RH. Pneumococcal bacteremia in febrile infants presenting to the emergency department before and after the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine. Ann Emerg Med. Jun 2007;49(6):772-7. [Medline].
- Herz AM, Greenhow TL, Alcantara J, Hansen J, Baxter RP, Black SB, et al. Changing epidemiology of outpatient bacteremia in 3- to 36-month-old children after the introduction of the heptavalent-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Apr 2006;25(4):293-300. [Medline].
- Brown ZA, Wald A, Morrow RA, Selke S, Zeh J, Corey L. Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant. JAMA. Jan 8 2003;289(2):203-9. [Medline].
- Yee-Guardino S, Kumar D, Abughali N, Tuohy M, Hall GS, Kumar ML. Recognition and treatment of neonatal community-associated MRSA pneumonia and bacteremia. Pediatr Pulmonol. Feb 2008;43(2):203-5. [Medline].
- Pitetti RD, Choi S. Utility of blood cultures in febrile children with UTI. Am J Emerg Med. Jul 2002;20(4):271-4. [Medline].
- Downs SM. Technical report: urinary tract infections in febrile infants and young children. The Urinary Tract Subcommittee of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Quality Improvement. Pediatrics. Apr 1999;103(4):e54. [Medline].
- Kuppermann N, Bank DE, Walton EA, et al. Risks for bacteremia and urinary tract infections in young febrile children with bronchiolitis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Dec 1997;151(12):1207-14. [Medline].
- Baraff LJ, Bass JW, Fleisher GR, et al. Practice guideline for the management of infants and children 0 to 36 months of age with fever without source. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Ann Emerg Med. Jul 1993;22(7):1198-210. [Medline].
- Downs SM, McNutt RA, Margolis PA. Management of infants at risk for occult bacteremia: a decision analysis. J Pediatr. Jan 1991;118(1):11-20. [Medline].
- Trautner BW, Caviness AC, Gerlacher GR, Demmler G, Macias CG. Prospective evaluation of the risk of serious bacterial infection in children who present to the emergency department with hyperpyrexia (temperature of 106 degrees F or higher). Pediatrics. Jul 2006;118(1):34-40. [Medline].
- Torrey SB, Henretig F, Fleisher G, et al. Temperature response to antipyretic therapy in children: relationship to occult bacteremia. Am J Emerg Med. May 1985;3(3):190-2. [Medline].
- Wahba H. The antipyretic effect of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in children. Pharmacotherapy. Feb 2004;24(2):280-4. [Medline].
- Weisse ME, Miller G, Brien JH. Fever response to acetaminophen in viral vs. bacterial infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Dec 1987;6(12):1091-4. [Medline].
- Yamamoto LG, Worthley RG, Melish ME, et al. A revised decision analysis of strategies in the management of febrile children at risk for occult bacteremia. Am J Emerg Med. Mar 1998;16(2):193-207. [Medline].
- Baker MD, Bell LM, Avner JR. The efficacy of noninvasive in hospital and outpatient management of febrile infants: a four year experience. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20:445.
- AAP. Practice parameter: the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Quality Improvement. Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection. Pediatrics. Apr 1999;103(4 Pt 1):843-52. [Medline].
- Shah SS, Alpern ER, Zwerling L, et al. Low risk of bacteremia in children with febrile seizures. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. May 2002;156(5):469-72. [Medline].
- Ammann RA, Hirt A, Lüthy AR, Aebi C. Predicting bacteremia in children with fever and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jan 2004;23(1):61-7. [Medline].
DR WIDODO JUDARWANTO SpA
CHILDREN ALLERGY CLINIC
JL TAMAN BENDUNGAN ASAHAN 5 JAKARTA PUSAT, JAKARTA INDONESIA 10210
PHONE : (021) 70081995 – 5703646
email : email@example.com,